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Validation of combustion modelling for practical combustion systems

Start date:13-10-2006
To be completed on:30-12-2010
Background Information:


G 25/y/02 - Modeling oxy-combustion gas and coal tests on Fosper (3 MW) comparing different validation approaches
Authors: C. Galletti, L. Giovannini, G. Coraggio, L. Tognotti
Publication date: May 2011

Oxy-fuel combustion is considered a promising technology for reducing greenhouse gases emission through CO2 capture and storage techniques. In recent years there has been a large increase of the use of simulation tools, such as those based on Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). CFD calculations may be applied directly to the industrial scale of interest, thus avoiding scaling-up the results from lab-scale experiments.
In the present work, CFD simulations of experiments conducted with a 3 MW low-NOx burner installed in the FoSper furnace in oxy-fired conditions fed with both NG and coal are performed. FoSper represents a reference case for a number of modeling activities with commercial and in-house codes.

F 39/y/01 - Inorganic aerosol formation tests in the Isothermal Plug Flow Reactor
Authors: L. Biasci, M. Falcitelli, G.Coraggio, M. Faleni
Publication date: may 2011

The formation and emission of fine particles from biomass and coal combustion have received increasing attention in the last few years. Aerosols from fuels with high volatile sodium or potassium compounds, as biomass and bio-refuse feedstocks, are often dominated by a large submicron particle fraction, formed as a consequence of alkali volatilization in the combustion zone and the following condensation. The growing interest in these particles mainly owns to their contribution to environmental pollution on both urban and regional scale. This issue is potentially enhanced by the greater difficulties in filtering the ultrafine particulate than the coarser fraction, using the existing flue gas cleaning devices. Moreover, aerosols can be enriched in heavy metals volatilized in the combustion zone, as particularly observed in coal combustion. Fine particles, which in biomass combustion are mainly composed by chlorides and sulphates, also contribute to deposition (slagging and fouling) and corrosion phenomena on boiler walls and tube surfaces.

IFRF, ENEL and CPR undertook a joint project with the main objective of developing a suitable system and the related procedures for studying aerosol formation in co-combustion of coal and biomass.
The first task of the project was the production and collection of experimental data for the validation of advanced mathematical models for fouling prediction in industrial boilers .This report shows the experimental facilities and the procedure used. In order to achieve the objective of producing and sampling aerosols particles the IFRF facility was modified to recreate the same conditions of a typical convective section of an industrial plant.

F 73/y/03 - Optical Diagnostics in a 3MW furnace Oxy-RFG-coal/gas combustion tests
Development of instrumentation and methods for the diagnostic of oxy-combustion systems
Authors: L. Lupetti, C. Galletti, G. Coraggio, L. Tognotti, R.Bruschi, E. Giacomazzi, S. Giammartini
Publication date: May 2011

This report contains the results of the experimental campaigns carried out by ENEA and  International Flame Research Foundation (IFRF) in collaboration with The Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Materials Science (University of Pisa), during year 2011 about the program “Development and optimization of innovative systems for the real-time diagnostic of semi-industrial furnace operating in Oxy-coal combustion”.  With this agreement, ENEA and IFRF had the opportunity to test the Optical Diagnostic of Combustion probes on the ENEL/IFRF Research  facility at Livorno. 

In this report, the plant, the probes, the operating conditions and the recorded signals by the ODC system during the oxycombustion experimental campaign  on FOSPER, 3 MWth furnace, are reported. The detailed analysis of the signals is also performed and conclusions are drawn on the applicability of the diagnostic technique to industrial combustion system.

G 25/y/01 - Verification, validation and uncertainties quantification in industrial combustion modelling: some practical tools
Authors: A. Parente, C. Galletti, G. Coraggio, L. Tognotti
Publication date: May 2011

The report proposes a methodology for estimating the uncertainty in experiments and numerical simulations, to promote a constructive validation of computational approaches. 
Validation hierarchies are suggested for two combustion applications that attract increasing interest in the combustion field: a flameless and an oxy-fired furnace.  Two guiding examples, a self-recuperative flameless unit and Fo.Sper furnace, are then identified to show the main steps involved in the V&V methodology.  These include the determination of the total error in the experimental data, including the statistical reproducibility and experimental error, the evaluation of the numerical error and modelling uncertainty, and the quantification of the level of agreement between experimental data and numerical simulations. 
Finally, the consistency between numerical models and experimental data is discussed, showing the potential of V&V of identifying which values of the uncertain input parameters allow defining a consistent predictive model.

K 22/y/02 - Retrofitting oxy-fuel technology in a semi-industrial plant
Flame characteristics and NOX production from a low NOX burner fed with natural gas
Authors: G. Coraggio, L. Tognotti, et al.
Publication date: August 2010

This paper reports part of the results of the campaigns performed on a low NOX burner, firing natural gas in oxy-fuel conditions. The results of combustion tests on burning natural gas with different flue gas recycle rates are presented, with a particular emphasis on NOX production that might affect retrofitting of oxy-fuel technology in conventional boilers.

The paper was presented at the 33rd International Symposium on Combustion.

F 110/y/01 - Combustion of NG and pulverised coal in a mixture of oxygen and RFG
Authors: Giovanni Coraggio, Michele Laiola
Publication date: September 2009

This report presents the results of the first phase of the experimental programme carried out by ENEL and IFRF in the period from December 2008 to January 2009.  Tests on the FOSPER furnace were initiated as part of the EU RFCS Friendly Coal project, with IFRF activity covered by ENEL and EU funding.  The programme on FOSPER, mainly commissioning new oxy-firing capability, was a response to the pressing demand for data and information on pilot and semi-industrial scale.

E110/y/01 - In flame measurements of aerodynamic and chemical composition profiles
Authors: Giovanni Coraggio
Publication date: October 2008

The validation of mathematical models on semi-industrial scale plants plays a fundamental role in the development of new combustion technologies.  Whilst in the past, the IFRF's semi-industrial scale Furnace #1 was regarded as a reference case for mathematic modellers requiring validation of their computer codes, the key facility is now the 3-5 MW furnace Fo.Sper. (Fornace Sperimentale–Experimental Furnace), a replica of Furnace #1.

The Members Research Project “Validation of combustion modelling for practical combustion systems” has as its objective the production of a large set of in flame measurements in different combustion conditions and the use of this data to validate advanced mathematical models.

In order to acquire reliable information from FOSPER, some preliminary experimental campaigns were carried out to test the furnace, the burners and the measurement instrumentation. This report describes the first two campaigns carried out by ENEL and the IFRF during November-December 2006 and June-July 2007, and includes a critical analysis of the data measured.

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