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RESEARCH
ISSN 1607 - 9140                    www.research.ifrf.net

High Efficiency Combustion

Applications of Flameless Combustion Firing
Number:MRP-GEN-09
Acronym:HEC
Status:Completed on 31-12-2004
Start date:01-04-2002
To be completed on:31-12-2004
Background Information:

In the period 1995 to 2000, the IFRF Research Station commenced and successfully executed a programme of experimental research based on the concept of Flameless Combustion.

Following from feedback from the IFRF Member Organisations and their Individual Members acquired during the Triennial 1998-2001, the IFRF Joint Committee concluded that a major element of future IFRF Members Research Programmes should relate the introduction of such Advanced Combustion Techniques into industrial Heating Processes - This concept was adopted under the title - "High Efficiency Combustion".

This policy was adopted by the Joint Committee of the IFRF in its November 2001 meeting [JC144, IJmuiden] and formalised at its meeting of March 2002 [JC145, Hoofddorp].

At Hoofddorp it was proposed and agreed that the IFRF would join with a research consortium already in existance.

This consortium had been founded by CORUS IJmuiden in co-operation with Nederlandse Gasunie. They had proposed to commission a programme of research at the IFRF Research Station with financial support from NOVEM, the Netherlands research agency. This programme was primarily concerned with applications of flameless combustion techniques to technologies such as steel reheating furnaces. But clearly the results of this programme had the potential for broader application in other industries - this was of interest to the IFRF.

In becoming a partner in this consortium and a co-funder of the Research Programme, the IFRF is able to add this programme to its Members Research Programmes - 2002-2004. This means that the IFRF Member Organisations, through their representatives who are registered as Individual Members of the IFRF, have access to the planning and execution of the experimental programmes, can assist in the interpretation of experimental results and will receive the published reports as they are approved.

It was further agreed at Hoofddorp that the HEC programme would be the "pilot project" for a new form of interactive research publication using the facilities of IFRF NET. Here the staff of IFRF NET would co-operate with the staff of the IFRF Research Station to keep the IFRF Member Organisations fully informed of the HEC programme developements and encourage feedback from the Individual Members of the IFRF. This new research website will be the basis of this initiative.

At the Hoofddorp meeting Peter Hoppesteyn of CORUS IJmuiden was appointed Project Manager and seconded to the Research Station, there to co-operate with Mark Boss [Photo left], who was already engaged at the IFRF Research Station in the design of an appropriate experimental facility for the execution of the new programme.

A presentation was made by Peter Hoppesteyn [Photo-right] at Hoofddorp concerning the background to the project and and the facility planning.

Immediately after the Hoofddorp meeting the Programme was launched and the background presentation was published. This has been republished in this website - See documents associated with this project.

As information develops, we will publish - and we will seek your reactions and advice for the future. 

Peter Roberts
Director - IFRF NET
IJmuiden - July 2002

 

 

Documents:

K70/y/156 - Towards Industrial Application of High Efficiency Combustion
Authors: B.T. Burggraaf, B. Lewis, P.D.J. Hoppesteyn, N. Fricker, S. Santos and B.K. Slim
Publication date: September 2005

In 2001 the IFRF commenced a programme of research aiming to provide information through which process industries could improve the thermal efficiency of their heating processes, reduce costs, NOx emissions and net CO2 emissions. This is the IFRF High Efficiency Combustion Research Programme.

Following from developments at IJmuiden the research was based on application of modern regenerative burner operating in “flameless” mode. In the work described in the paper the IFRF cooperated with Corus RD&T and Gasunie Engineering & Technologies; the specific industrial application envisaged was steel slab-reheating, in particular, pusher type furnaces.

The IFRF set up a 1MW semi-industrial scale test facility to simulate the reheating process equipped with two commercially available HEC burners. The paper gives details of the facility design and operation and the measurement capability with details of the results of both natural gas and coke oven gas firing campaigns.

In order to investigate the application of the experience gained in the experimental investigations to a pusher type slab-reheating furnace, CFD modelling was developed based on a commercial code. Details of these developments and the application of the model are described.

Finally there is a comparison between the operational data of a conventionally fired furnace and the predicted HEC fired furnace, with analysis of the gains to be made, leading to conclusions and the planning of full scale application.

 

F108/y/3 - EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF THE HEC-EEC FURNACE AND BURNERS FIRING COKE OVEN GAS
Authors: Jonas Brobäck Adolfi, Connie Ellul, Ferry Frinking and Stanley Santos
Publication date: June 2005

This report presents the observations and experimental data collected during the final phase of the IFRF HEC Project. A 5m x 2m x 2m furnace fitted with a pair of proprietary compact regenerative burners was fired with Coke Oven Gas in a flameless combustion mode. The regenerative burners reversed at approximately 30-second intervals, and provided combustion air preheat levels of up to 1250C.

Input/output measurements and in-flame measurements were made at a range of throughputs between 300kW and 1MW. Measured parameters included gas temperatures, wall temperatures, gas compositions, NOx concentrations and radiative heat fluxes to the furnace walls. In addition, an extensive set of photographs and some video recordings of the flames were made. The approaches to measuring in flame parameters in a rapidly cycling combustion system developed in earlier phases of the HEC project were deployed. This has resulted in a consistent set of in-flame data for both natural gas and COG fuels.

Although primarily intended to generate data sets for the development and validation of mathematical models of the effect of fuel type on high temperature flameless combustion systems, a number of direct observations of the characteristics were made, and these are set out in the main text of this report.

 

G108/y/3 - NON-ISOTHERMAL CFD MODEL OF THE HEC FURNACE AND BURNERS (ADDITIONAL CALCULATIONS)
Authors: René Hekkens
Publication date: January 2005

The combination of compact regenerative burners with flameless firing delivers the high thermal efficiency needed for reducing carbon emissions and fuel costs while at the same time reducing NOx emissions. The IFRF Research Station is undertaking detailed measurements and modelling of such a system in its High Efficiency Combustion (HEC) furnace, the objective being to provide generic information on the combustion behaviour of regenerative flameless combustion systems, together with data that may be used to develop and validate mathematical models of such processes. Although the HEC furnace design is intended as a simulation of a large steel-reheating furnace, it is anticipated that the output from the HEC tests will find application over a wide range of industrial processes.

G108/y/3 is the third of three reports dealing with the CFD modelling of a high temperature furnace fired by a pair of compact regenerative burners operating in the ‘flameless’ mode. The report describes the validation of a non-isothermal CFD models used to simulate mixing, combustion and heat transfer taking place in the IFRF’s HEC furnace when fired flamelessly.

A comprehensive description of the model configurations adopted is given in G108/y/1 and G108/y/2. Further details of the furnace and burner geometry are available in the HEC Planning report (D108/y/1) and the HEC Furnace Commissioning reports (C108/y/1 and C108/y/2).

In this report, additional comparisons are made between the output of the G108/y/2 CFD model and data collected when firing the furnace on natural gas and which was not available at the time of the original comparisons. At the same time, the opportunity has been taken to better reproduce the actual furnace boundary conditions in the CFD model.

All HEC reports cited in this summary are available to IFRF Members as downloads from:

http://www.research.ifrf.net/research/programmes.html
 

G108/y/2 - NON-ISOTHERMAL CFD MODEL OF THE HEC FURNACE AND BURNERS
Authors: Rene Hekkens, Marco Mancini
Publication date: November 2004

G108/y/2 is the second of two reports dealing with the CFD modelling of a high temperature furnace fired by a pair of compact regenerative burners operating in the ‘flameless’ mode. The report describes the configuration and validation of two non-isothermal CFD models used to simulate:

  • The air and fuel flow through one of a pair of NFK compact regenerative burners operating in a ‘flameless ‘ mode
  • The flow, mixing and combustion taking place in the IFRF’s HEC furnace when fired with the above burner

Although the two models are independent, the output conditions at the exit of the burner model form the input conditions for the air and fuel jets entering the furnace model. A comprehensive description of the model configurations adopted is given in G108/y/1. Further details of the furnace and burner geometry are available in the HEC Planning report (D108/y/1) and the HEC Furnace Commissioning reports (C108/y/1 and C108/y/2).

In this report, detailed information is presented on the transport equations used in a combusting flow, and on several combustion sub models tested against the experimental data:

  • Probability Density Function (PDF) equilibrium combustion model
  • Probability Density Function (PDF)  flamelet model
  • Eddy Break Up (EBU) model tuned by the IFRF for Natural Gas combustion. 
  • Eddy Dissipation Combustion (EDC) model

The approach to radiation modelling for flameless firing is also described.

Direct comparisons are made with measured in-flame data (See IFRF Report F108/y/1, and new data presented within the body of this report) for these four combustion sub-models. The comparisons are quite extensive, based on velocities temperatures and species, including NOx.

All HEC reports cited in this summary are available to IFRF Members as downloads from:

http://www.research.ifrf.net/research/programmes.html

F108/y/2 - EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF THE HEC-EEC FURNACE AND BURNERS FIRING NATURAL GAS
Authors: Stanley Santos, Jonas Brobäck Adolfi, Connie Ellul, Ferry Frinking and Peter Hoppesteyn
Publication date: November 2004

Reduction of fuel consumption in any high temperature heating processes is essential from the points of view of cost saving and reduction of specific CO2 emissions.  One way to achieve this end is by using a modern regenerative burner system.  A considerable body of work has been done internationally to develop and further the understanding of the operation of such systems, including a series of investigations at the IFRF Research Station.

On the basis of the IFRF Research Station work, a further programme was developed by the IFRF in co-operation with CORUS RD&T and NV Nederlandse Gasunie, which was entitled the “Excess Enthalpy Combustion” Project.  This later became part of the IFRF “High Efficiency Combustion” Programme referred to as the HEC-EEC programme.

As a precursor to this programme a new facility was designed and constructed at the IFRF Research Station.  The background to the programme and a description of the facility are summarised in the present report.  For further details the reader is referred to the Planning and Commissioning Reports listed in the References.

The initial experimental programme comprised a basic isothermal experimental analysis of the aerodynamic performance of the furnace which was to be followed by two major experimental campaigns firing natural gas and coke oven gas respectively.  These have been completed and the present report describes the natural gas experiments.

The programme consisted of firing a range of natural gas flames to prepare a data base of input/output measurements.  For a large proportion of these flames, detailed in-flame measurements were performed where temperature and gas composition fields were determined.  All these data are tabulated in the present report, in a manner which should be of utility to mathematical modellers in their efforts to develop and validate models of cyclical combustion and heat transfer processes.  The intention was also to gain and record experience in the operation of such burners, which, together with the results of mathematical modelling investigations, will allow the successful application of these burners to the firing of industrial heating processes.

A detailed description of the experimental setup, procedures and explanation of the results were presented in this report. All the HEC reports are available to IFRF members as downloads from

http://www.research.ifrf.net/research/programmes.html


 

G108/y/1 - ISOTHERMAL CFD MODEL OF HEC BURNER AND FURNACE
Authors: René H Hekkens
Publication date: September 2004

The combination of compact regenerative burners with flameless firing delivers the high thermal efficiency needed for reducing carbon emissions and fuel costs while at the same time reducing NOx emissions. The IFRF Research Station is undertaking detailed measurements and modelling of such a system in its new High Efficiency Combustion (HEC) furnace, the objective being to provide generic information on the combustion behaviour of regenerative flameless combustion systems, together with data that may be used to develop and validate mathematical models of such processes.

G108/y/1 is the first of two reports dealing with the CFD modelling of a high temperature furnace fired by a pair of compact regenerative burners operating in the ‘flameless’ mode. The report describes the configuration and validation of two isothermal CFD models used to simulate: 

  • The air and fuel flows through one of a pair of NFK compact regenerative burners operating in a ‘flameless ‘ mode
  • The flow and mixing taking place in the IFRF’s HEC furnace when fired with the above burner

A detailed description of the physics of the model and the sub-models deployed by the author is presented. The CFD output has been validated against isothermal Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurements made on the IFRF’s HEC furnace (See IFRF Report F108/y/1). Further details of the furnace and burner geometry are available in the HEC Planning report (D108/y/1) and the HEC Furnace Commissioning reports (C108/y/1 and C108/y/2). All the HEC reports are available to IFRF members as downloads from

http://www.research.ifrf.net/research/programmes.html

F108/y/1 - LASER BASED MEASUREMENTS - HEC-EEC FURNACE AND BURNERS
Authors: Ferry Frinking
Publication date: April 2004

The combination of compact regenerative burners with flameless firing delivers the high thermal efficiency needed for reducing carbon emissions and fuel costs while at the same time reducing NOx emissions. The IFRF Research Station is undertaking detailed measurements and modelling of such a system in its new High Efficiency Combustion (HEC) furnace, the objective being to provide generic information on the combustion behaviour of regenerative flameless combustion systems, together with data that may be used to develop and validate mathematical models of such processes. Although the HEC furnace design is intended as a simulation of a large steel reheating furnace, it is anticipated that the output from the HEC tests will find application over a wide range of industrial processes.

Laser Sheet Visualisation (LSV) and Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurements have been performed to determine the flow patterns inside the HEC burner and furnace, and to quantify the velocities at the burner exits and within the combustion chamber.  These measurements have been performed under two circumstances:

• With the burners firing on natural gas at the nominal rating of the HEC furnace (1MW fuel input)

• Using cold air to create an isothermal simulation of the flow and mixing phenomena in the furnace

C108/y/2 - COMMISSIONING REPORT: HEC-EEC Furnace and Burners (Part 2 of 2)
Authors: Jonas Brobäck Adolfi, Mark Boss, Stanley Santos
Publication date: April 2004

C108/y/2 is the second of the two reports presenting the commissioning activities of the new HEC-EEC Furnace. The furnace is equipped with a pair of compact regenerative burners designed to operate in a “Flameless” mode.

Within the scope of the High Efficiency Combustion/Excess Enthalpy Combustion (HEC/EEC) project, this report aims to present all the pertinent data obtained during the commissioning activities and to declare that the required technical and functional specifications of the burners and the furnace as presented in the previous report [C108/y/1] are realised.

 

C108/y/1 - COMMISSIONING REPORT: HEC-EEC Furnace and Burners (Part 1 of 2)
Authors: Peter Hoppesteyn, Ferry Frinking, Willem van de Kamp
Publication date: December 2003

C108/y/1 is the first of the two reports presenting the commissioning activities of the new HEC-EEC Furnace.

Within the scope of the High Efficiency Combustion / Excess Enthalpy Combustion (HEC/EEC) project a new test furnace and a set of two regenerative burners have been designed, engineered and purchased. This report presents the technical and functional specifications of the furnace and the burners; the measurement equipment used in the commissioning test and to be used in the experimental trials; initial results obtained during the first commissioning test and conclusions.

C108/y/2 will be published upon the completion of the commissioning of the furnace. Below are some of the photographs taken during the various phases of construction of the HEC-EEC furnace.

Decommissioning of IFRF Furnace #1

Construction of the Furnace

Installation of the Furnace at the Research Station

HEC-EEC Furnace - During Commissioning Activities

D108/y/1 - High Efficiency Combustion Programme Development
HEC Phases 1 and 2 Planning Report
Authors: Peter Hoppesteyn, Mark Boss
Publication date: July 2002

This is the first full report to be published on the new IFRF Members' Research Project Site. It has been prepared such that the essential technical information is accessible only to Individual Members, properly registered with the IFRF. Therefore the reader will be asked to authenticate her/himself on linking to the report proper, via the report title on the Banner. 

To improve our service of reporting to our Member Organisations and their Individual Members we are developing this method of publication, which combines:

  • The report archiving possibilities of "pdf" files and;
  • The immediate on-screen reading possibilities of "html" files.

Individual Members are invited to explore this approach by browsing the report, which, as we have mentioned above, is the first to be published using this method.

When you click on the banner title you will find:

  1. The  complete Archive Copy - From this screen the reader can download the  complete document as a pdf file - 435kB.
    This is fine if you have a broadband connection - but not so user friendly if you have a slower connection.
  2. "The Section by Section" version.
    If you would like to read each Section on screen as an html file, click on the Section you require.
    If you do not have a broadband connection, you can also download your archive version, Section by Section, as pdf files.

We believe that this will be particularly useful with very large reports as it will also allow us to serialise the publication of the document over a few week. Thus when a section preparation is complete we can publish immediately.

You will be regularly informed of the publication of Research Files on this site via the Monday Night Mail - MNM.

 

HEC-Presentation-01 - High Efficiency Combustion - The New Combustion Process for Efficient Operation for High Temperature Furnaces
Presention of Programme Concept
Authors: Peter Hoppesteyn
Publication date: April 2002

This document is edited from the Powerpoint presentation made by Peter Hoppesteyn to the IFRF Board of Directors, the Joint Committee, at its 145th Meeting held at Hoofddorp in the Netherlands on 14th and 15th March 2002.

The document can be downloaded by Registered IFRF Individual Members - Click the title, enter your User Name and Password and access the full document by clicking the pdf download icon.

Only current reports (i.e. those published after January 2011) are downloadable from this or any other area of the IFRF website.

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